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President Trump has promised to drain the swamp in Washington. We ran this through Autocase for Green Infrastructure to see what the value is of this “strategy”. We centered the project at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue (although we considered running it from Trump’s hotel at 1100 Pennsylvania Ave). But, using the White House as the project site, we find an interesting result - that the Trump International Hotel may be the biggest beneficiary from the natural ecosystem.

The project was set to run for 4 years starting on January 20th 2017. We assumed a 100-day (de-) construction period. We left the planning period at zero since that is not the President’s strong suit.

We ran Autocase for Green Infrastructure to value an existing 1-acre swamp in D.C. to see what we’d lose from draining it.

Green infrastructure such as a swamp has many benefits; stormwater is naturally cleaned of pollutants, flooding is reduced, air pollution and carbon emissions are reduced, urban heat island effects are reduced, and property values are enhanced.

The swamp creates positive social and environmental value for Washington and also have value on a national or global scale.

In Autocase for Green Infrastructure, the value of a project is summarized in terms of Financial or Sustainable Net Present Value, or NPV. The Financial NPV only includes costs and benefits that involve cash flows to the government. Since this is an existing swamp there are no capital expenditures or operations and maintenance (O&M) costs but there are avoided costs (without the swamp you need additional piping and detention to handle the stormwater run-off so Autocase for Green Infrastructure has calculated the capital expenditures and O&M costs for these items).

The Sustainable NPV, on the other hand, includes not only financial cash flows but also the monetized value of all of the project’s social and environmental net benefits to society as a whole. In this case these, to be conservative water quality benefits were not included. Other benefits include changes in carbon emissions (Autocase allows setting the social cost of carbon to zero, or any other value, if President Trump so wishes).

Other benefits include changes in air quality, urban heat island reduction, property value uplift, and a reduction in flooding.

In the case of keeping the 1-acre swamp, the total Sustainable Net Present Value is $137,706. This means that this design alternative has a positive total value when summing together the Financial, Social, and Environmental costs and benefits. Therefore the saving the swamp project has an overall net positive value to society.

Overall, saving the swamp will result in reduced government outlays on piping and detention to stop flooding. It also has a positive social and environmental value and brings overall benefits to the surrounding region including President Trump’s hotel. We think President Trump should re-consider.

John Parker
Chief Economist
Impact Infrastructure


So, I am a “car guy”. I recently purchased a new sports car, the most expensive car yet in a series of many cars over my driving life. While I was impressed with the performance, quality, and purchase price,  my interest didn’t stop there. I wanted to know what is the on-going maintenance schedule and costs to assure the vehicle will last as long as possible

There are a couple of approaches you can take with a car. You can pay for your car and then drive it until it breaks, or you can put oil in it and schedule regular maintenance checks. The latter approach will cost you more in the short term but at the end of the day the car will last longer and should cost you less money.

Any organization which is responsible for infrastructure, should take serious their stewardship responsibilities for the long-term sustainability of publicly owned assets. While there is a growing awareness of the infrastructure deficit we face in North America, there continues to be a resistance and ambivalence to the subject. Asset management is a process that puts some structure and rigor around managing publicly owned infrastructure and the services it delivers. The process provides the information for local government to develop a strategy that considers realistic life-cycle projections, replacement costs, and risk analysis to allow for long term organization-wide planning.

An asset management system provides the resiliency required in order to apply informed decisions relating to major capital investment, giving consideration to stakeholder interests, economic conditions and existing asset conditions. It helps to answer, what do we want, what do we have, what do we need and when.

An AMS can be developed over time as a three-phase approach. Phase 1 would include the creation of an asset management policy and framework. These resources will provide a holistic foundation for preparing Asset Management Plans for community water, wastewater, stormwater, road, and community building and facility assets.

Phase 2 would focus on the development of the AMS strategy and financial planning to align with the long-term capital planning process of an organization. This phase would also involve scoping of an Asset Information System and the completion of the specific Asset Management Plans.

Phase 3 would involve finalizing key tools and resources for implementing the AMS over the long term. These would include an Asset Management Handbook, Asset Information System and a Community Awareness Strategy.

Having a good Asset Management System in place will help allocate resources between asset classes based on priorities defined by your community strategic plan and asset management policy. Simply it will help you determine whether a road repair is more critical over a mechanical replacement in one of the City facilities.

There are numerous resources to help an organization thru the process APWA has an Asset Management Task Force which has been researching the topic over the last year. They are researching and developing an asset management road map to provide members an easily understood method to follow in developing their asset management system.  

While the concept of know what you are buying, understanding and budgeting the long term maintenance costs; and undertaking the ongoing maintenance may seem simplistic, following these key steps whether you are owning a sports car of responsible for municipal infrastructure, assures many years of happy motoring!

Dwayne Kalynchuk

Director of Public Works & Engineering City of Victoria



October is National Energy Awareness Month so we wanted to take a look at where Public Works operations could improve their energy efficiency.  When managers think about energy savings, heating and cooling buildings and fuel for motor vehicle fleets typically comes to mind since just almost all communities have those responsibilities.  However another common but often overlooked responsibility where energy savings can be found is in the construction and maintenance of roadways.  Quite a bit of energy goes into building roads and even more is invested in the maintenance of the pavement and adjacent right of way.  The design of roadways and intersections also affects how much fuel is used getting from point A to point B.  The effort and frequency of maintenance dictates how much energy is invested in the long run.  In order to explore potential energy savings associated with roadways those interested can visit the Greenroads website.  The Greenroads Rating System is a sustainability rating system for roadway design and construction projects.  Greenroads was established in 2010 and is a very similar process to the LEED certification program for building projects.  There one can find a variety of ways for roadways to be more energy efficient including:

  • Maximizing the reuse of onsite materials and use of recycled materials
  • Optimizing equipment types and sizes to reduce fuel costs during construction
  • Using energy efficient asphalt mixes
  • Minimizing transportation distances for new materials and disposal of materials
  • Minimizing detours and additional travel distances during construction
  • Optimizing routes for efficiency and consider round a bouts and other techniques to reduce signals and vehicle idling
  • Designing pavements, bridges, other major structures, and landscaping to minimize maintenance costs and maximize service life and associated energy use.
  • Considering the use of  energy efficient lighting and signals
  • Providing for mass transit and multi modal forms of transportation which is also a part of Complete Streets
  • Supporting and Encouraging pedestrian and bicycle use

These techniques can be applied to both large and small scale projects.  In Fayetteville NC, the City is using these techniques as part of the Person Street corridor facelift.   This “Green Street” project, located within the heart of Downtown Fayetteville, represents how existing gray to green conversions in major downtown transportation corridors can be completed using innovative and energy efficient “Green” techniques.  The Public Works Department in Raleigh NC is using the Sandy Forks Road widening/improvement project as a pilot project to provide staff with additional knowledge and familiarity with the latest sustainable transportation design best practices that would benefit the City’s approach to future roadway projects.  This project includes the first public roadway median bioretention area to be installed by Raleigh and addresses energy conservation through the use of native landscaping; Bike & pedestrian access; context‐sensitive solutions, and the use of warm mix asphalt/recycled asphalt.

Scott Whalen

WK Dickson & Co, Inc.

Vice President



To celebrate in style, I thought it would be worth highlighting that the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE) has put out their 10th edition of the State Energy Efficiency Scorecard: For the 6th year in a row, my home state of Massachusetts is #1! Which is always something I am happy to share, though this year we are sharing top billing with California.


The objective of the Scorecard is to rank states on their energy efficiency efforts and ultimately encourage them to keep pushing towards being #1. We have seen that improved efficiency promotes economic growth and improves environmental quality. The report examines policies, programs, best practices, and overall leadership in six policy areas:

  • Utility and public benefits programs and policies
  • Transportation policies
  • Building energy codes and compliance
  • Combined heat and power (CHP) policies
  • State government–led initiatives around energy efficiency
  • Appliance and equipment standards

Additionally, this year ACEEE gave credit to those states that have PACE enabling legislation “to recognize innovative state efforts to leverage private capital toward efficiency goals.” PACE stands for Property Assessed Clean Energy and it is a financing mechanism that is growing in popularity as it allows energy efficiency, clean energy, and resilience improvements to a property to be financed through property taxes. A lien is placed on the property until paid in full, but this addresses concerns that short-term owners have had with efficiency and other improvements that might have a longer payback period than the amount of time they are interested in staying in the building. You can find out more at


So how does Massachusetts do it??


To be #1 for six years in a row is something. What does Massachusetts have or do that is so special? Well, according to ACEEE, “Massachusetts has one of the most ambitious energy efficiency resource standards in the country” - that means we have established specific, long term targets for reducing energy use that the utilities in the state must meet. The Commonwealth also passed the Green Communities Act back in 2008, which identified energy efficiency as a first priority resource throughout the state and set up a number of programs to support that, including the Green Communities program which drives energy efficiency at the local level. For more information:


While these are great achievements, Massachusetts needs to keep driving forward to maintain its claim to the top spot. California will keep us on our toes. There were three categories where California scored higher than Massachusetts: Transportation, State Government Initiatives, and Appliance Efficiency Standards.


On the Transportation side, Massachusetts needs to actually achieve significant reductions in vehicle miles travelled per capita. We have not been able to demonstrate that yet. Under State Government Initiatives, the missing point is for a statewide building benchmarking and transparency requirement. This is a fairly innovative policy at the state level. Local governments have been leading in this area for several years now ( It will be interesting to see if/how various states step up to take this on. Clearly California already has, but so have a few others to varying extents - Washington, D.C., Alaska, New York, and Kansas, to name a few. The Institute for Market Transformation has created a great map (below) highlighting the state and local benchmarking policies across the country.


Finally, under appliance standards, well California set the bar here and while Massachusetts had previously had appliance standards, we are now just working with the federal standards.


How can your state improve its ranking on the scorecard?


Like Massachusetts, California and other states in the top ten are there because they have moved well past the voluntary programs and into strong legislative action that establishes standards for efficiency that must be met and those standards are tightened on a regular basis. I have worked with lots of local governments in many other states and that is the differentiating factor in successfully moving towards a more sustainable community. We have to stop being scared to REQUIRE these changes. Massachusetts, California, and others are proving that you can enforce strict efficiency standards and actually spur growth- not stifle it. This is a great lesson for those that feel beholden to developers and others that are constantly fighting these necessary changes.So while you are prepping for Halloween, remember that while jack-o-lanterns can be fun for Halloween, they are not really practical and therefore not your best strategy to become more energy efficient.


Whether considering state level legislation action or not, ACEEE suggests these strategies improve your statewide energy efficiency efforts:

  • Establish and adequately fund an EERS or similar energy savings target.
  • Adopt updated, more stringent building energy codes, improve code compliance, and involve efficiency program administrators in code support.
  • Set quantitative targets for reducing VMT, and integrate land use and transportation planning.
  • Treat cost-effective and efficient CHP as an energy efficiency resource equivalent to other forms of energy efficiency.
  • Expand state-led efforts—and make them visible.
  • Explore and promote innovative financing mechanisms to leverage private capital and lower upfront costs of energy efficiency measures.



Kim Lundgren

Chair, APWA Center for Sustainability (C4S)


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